Indigenous Peoples Resources

We have gathered Indigenous People’s of Canada resources for the CARFLEO  Conference .  If you have any other resources, please let us know.

CARFLEOTRCCanadian Bishops | Ontario Ministry of Education | Kairos |

Alberta Catholic Schools | Ontario Catholic Schools |

Reconciliation Through Indigenous Education Course Resources


Indigenous Spirituality Resources

Discussion starter for Aboriginal Spirituality or Social Justice

Avoiding the Misappropriation of Indigenous Culture

World Religions: Indigenous Peoples Spirituality Links

Joining the Circle: COPA Resource

Truth, Reconciliation and Hope Conference

Anishinaabe and Anishinini distribution around 1800 by DarrenBaker – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada

Truth and Reconciliation Commission website

Honouring the Truth, Reconciling the Future: Summary of the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada

Calls to Action

Where are the Children?  Between 1831 and 1996, residential schools operated in Canada through arrangements between the Government of Canada and the church. One common objective defined this period — the assimilation of Aboriginal children. This site is a counterpart to Where are the Children? Healing the Legacy of the Residential Schools, a touring exhibition that explores the history and legacy of Canada’s Residential School System through Survivor stories, archival photographs, and documents, curated by Iroquois artist Jeff Thomas.

To mark the first anniversary of the release of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) Call to Actions, Kim Wheeler and Erica Daniels from CBC Radio’s Unreserved program created 94 visuals reflecting each TRC call to action.

Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops

Ontario Ministry of Education

Indigenous Education Strategy


Kairos Blanket Exercise

Education for Reconciliation Action Toolkit (pdf) (2015)

 Alberta Catholic Schools

Calgary Catholic School District FNMI

Greater St. Albert Catholic Schools

Red Deer Catholic Schools: FNMI

University of Alberta Library

Ontario Catholic Schools First Nations Metis and Inuit Resources

Bruce Grey CDSB

EOCCC Aboriginal Resources (Eastern Ontario Catholic Curriculum Corporation)

Halton Catholic CDSB

Hamilton-Wentworth CDSB

Simcoe Muskoka CDSB

Waterloo CDSB

Other Resources

Saskatchewan Catholic Schools

CPCO Connections Special Issue: Aboriginal Education

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Poster  pdf


Justice for Aboriginal Peoples — It’s time  PSAC

Jordans Principle – Cindy Blackstock telling the story of Jordan River Anderson

Walk a Mile film project Thunder Bay, Ontario

Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance

Resources from the Course: UBCx: IndEdu200x Reconciliation Through Indigenous Education

  1. Introduction

Alfred, G. T. (2009). Restitution is the real pathway to justice for Indigenous peoples. Response, Responsibility and Renewal, 179-187.

Alfred, Taiaiake (2016). Reconciliation as Recolonization Talk. Running Time 47:48. Retrieved from

Australian Broadcasting Corporation. (2015). The Recognition Debate. Running Time 14:05. Retrieved from Two Elders debate the notion of reconciliation in Australia, highlighting some of the positives aspects and the critiques of reconciliation.

Busbridge, R. Constructing national community and Indigenous-settler reconciliation. Retrieved from

CBC Books (2016). A reconciliation reading list for young readers. Retrieved from

CBC Books (2016). A reconciliation reading list: 15 must-read books. Retrieved from

CBC News (2015). Witness Blanket weaves residential school memories together. Retrieved from

Chinapen, R. (2016). Reconciliation Begins with You and Me. Retrieved from (Running Time 14:22)

Corntassel, J. (2009). Indigenous storytelling, truth-telling, and community approaches to reconciliation. English Studies in Canada, 35(1), 137-159. Retrieved from

Coulthard, G. (2011, published 2016). Recognition, Reconciliation and Resentment in Indigenous Politics. Running Time 1:17:38. Retrieved from Focusing first on the apology, Coulthard describes his resistance to the reconciliation movement in Canada.

Dion, S.D. (2007). Disrupting molded images: Identities, responsibilities and relationships. Teaching Education, 18 (4), 329-342. Lenape-Potawatomi scholar Susan Dion expresses the need for educators to explore their own understanding of the historical relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in settler societies, by encouraging educators to reflect on the biography of their relationship with Aboriginal people.

Dion, S.D. (2009). Braiding histories: Learning from Aboriginal peoples’ experiences and perspective. Vancouver: UBC Press.  Lenape-Potawatomi scholar Susan Dion provides a new pedagogical approach to Aboriginal content in school curriculums, with an in-depth exploration of the historical relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in settler societies.

ECA Learning Hub (2014). Exploring reconciliation in early learning Part 2 (7:53). Retrieved from

Eguchi, L., Riley, J., Nelson, N., Adonri, Q., & Trotter, S. (2016). Towards a New Relationship: Tool Kit for Reconciliation/Decolonization of Social Work Practice at the Individual, Workplace, and Community Level. Vancouver, BC: British Columbia Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from: This toolkit supports the development of cultural safety among social workers. However, it poses important questions for self-reflection that could be useful to any Canadian, in any job. In addition, it offers ideas about how to create a culturally safe environment for Indigenous clients.

Gaertner, D.R. (2012) Beyond Truth: Materialist Approaches to Reconciliation Theories and Politics in Canada PhD English SFU. Retrieved from

Glover, D. (2014, May 23). The failure of reconciliation: Taiaiake Alfred [Web log post]. Retrieved from

Howsam, J.K. (2015) The Canadian Truth and Reconciliation Commission: Healing, Reconciliation, Resolution? MA Thesis Political Science. Retrieved from

Iseke-Barnes, J.M. (2008). Pedagogies for decolonizing. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 31(1), 123-148. Educators can find activities to introduce decolonizing practices to their classrooms, engaging students with Indigenous pedagogies.

Mennonites and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Running Time 17 min. Retrieved from

Pember, Mary Annette (2014). ‘The Great Hurt’: Facing the trauma of Indian Boarding Schools. Indian Country today Media Network. Retrieved from

Perreault, A. and Lew, J. (2016) Resources for bridging the knowledge gap and engaging with TRC Calls to Action. University of British Columbia: Indigenous Initiatives. Retrieved from Discusses on activity that university instructors used to engage students with the TRC calls to action with an activity called “What’s your call to action?”

Phillips, J. & Whatman, S. (2007) Decolonising Preservice Teacher Education – reform at many cultural interfaces. In Proceedings the World of Educational Quality: 2007 AERA Annual Meeting, pages pp. 194-194, Chicago, United States of America. The authors work through a set of processes pre-service teachers engage in as they seek to embrace, centralize, and embed Indigenous perspectives in the curriculum of schooling. Six key questions are posed to students throughout a university training course. These questions are examples of questions all educators should be considering as they understand how their constructions of Indigeneity inform their understanding of what happens in classroom spaces.

Promoting reconciliation: Illustrated practice (4:13). Retrieved from

Reconciliation Canada (n.d.) Impact Stories. Retrieved from This web page includes 12 short videos of various Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples (from school kids, artists, community leaders, etc.) as they talk about their connection to reconciliation.

Reconciliation Canada (n.d.). Back Pocket Reconciliation Action Plan. Retrieved from

Regan, P. (2010). Unsettling the settler within: Indian residential schools, truth telling, and reconciliation in Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press  Scholar Paulette Regan stresses the importance of non-Aboriginal Canadians’ participation in the decolonizing process in a society working towards reconciliation.

Shannen’s Dream. This website developed by the First Nations Child and Caring Society to support educators to engage children and youth in peaceful and respectful processes of reconciliation.

Smith, L.T. (1999). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and Indigenous peoples. Dunedin, N.Z: Zed Books. Indigenous scholar Linda Tuhiwai Smith discusses the imperial influences on the gathering and curation of knowledge in educational institutions, and the importance of decolonizing research practices.

Speaking My Truth (n.d.) Downloads. Retreived from:

The Agenda with Steve Paikin (2016). Healing through truth and art: Tina Keeper interview. Retrieved from Running Time 14:06 In this interview Tina Keeper talks about the ballet Going Home Star, a Royal Winnipeg Ballet production about the impact of residential schools on contemporary Indigenous experiences.

  1. Stories of Schooling

Bellrichard, C. (2015) 10 books about residential schools to read with your kids. CBC News – Indigenous. Retrieved from A list of children’s books recommended as conversation starters with children. Includes suggestions about how to discuss the topic with kids, and appropriate age ranges for each book.

CBC Television (2015) Stolen Children: Residential school survivors speak out. Retrieved from Running Time 18:35 This video features the stories of several residential school survivors, and their children. They note some of the effects of residential schools on the students, communities, and families. Intergenerational trauma from the residential schools is discussed.

Krall, K. (2011). Shi-shi-etko

(6:00) Retrieved from A little girl has just 4 days before she has to leave her family and community for residential school.

Northern Plains Reservation Aid (n.d.). Boarding Schools. Retrieved from: Overview of boarding schools and different parent perceptions of the practice. (USA)

Ontario College of Teachers. (2010, December 08). Voices of wisdom: Learning from Elders (14:00). Retrieved from Elders from First Nations, Inuit, and Metis communities share stories of personal experience to help understand the past.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (2015). Survivors Speak. Ottawa, ON: author. Retrieved from This report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission organizes and interprets the stories of survivors along themes according to what they experienced during the era of residential schools. A detailed bibliography is included.

University of Washington (n.d.). Assimilation through Education. Retrieved from: Information about mission schools, boarding schools, a typical daily schedule, negatives and positives. (USA)

University of Washington (n.d.). The Indian School at Chemawa. Retreived from: Link to article published in 1887 about what was happening to Indigenous people and what was happening at this particular school.

  1. Learning from Indigenous Worldviews

Akiwenzie-Damn, K. (2015). The Stone Collection. Highwater Press. Working from an Anishnaable perspective, these stories about loss celebrate the beauty of life.

Maracle, L. (2015). Talking to the Diaspora. Arbeiter Ring This book of poetry explores the multi-dimensional experience of being Indigenous in Canada.

Rice, W. (2014). Legacy. Theytus Books. This book looks at violence against Indigenous women and the lingering effects on a family and community.

Wagamese, R. (2014). Medicine Walk. McClelland & Stewart. A young man returns home to make peace with his alcoholic father.

Watt-Cloutier, S. (2015). The right to be cold: One woman’s story of protecting her culture, the arctic and the whole planet. Allen Lane. This is the story of a respected political figure in the arctic and her fight for the environment.

4. Building an Understanding of Indigenous Stories and Literacy

Archibald, J. A. (2008). Indigenous storywork: Educating the heart, mind, body, and spirit. UBC press.

Campbell, M. (1983). Halfbreed. Halifax, NS: Goodread Biographies. Campbell tells the story of growing up as a Metis in the Canadian prairies.

Campbell, M. (1995). Stories of the Road Allowance People. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books. Traditional stories written in Metis English dialect.

CBC Legends Project (2009). Gwich’in Legends. Running Time 53:58. Retrieved from

CBC Legends Project (2009). Legends of Old Massett Haida. Running Time 54:49. Retrieved from

CBC Legends Project (2009). Legends of the Kwak’wala. Running Time 53:59. Retrieved from

CBC Legends Project (2009). Legends of the Shuswap. Running Time 54:25. Retrieved from

David, D. (nd). Australian Indigenous Theatre: Achieving Reconciliation Through Storytelling. Retrieved from

Dorion, L. (2009). The giving tree: A retelling of a traditional Metis story about giving and receiving. Saskatoon, SK: Gabriel Dumont Institute. A beautifully illustrated traditional story, written in both English and Michif, including an audio CD.

Dunn, M. (2001). Aboriginal literacy: Reading the tracks. The Reading Teacher, 54(7), 678-687.

Fleury, N., Pelletier, G., Pelletier, J., Welsh, J., Welsh, N., DePeel, J., Saganace, C. (2008). Stories of our people Lii zistwayr di la naasyoon di Michif: A Metis graphic novel anthology. Saskatoon, SK: Gabriel Dumont Institute. Powerful traditional stories in the graphic novel format. The book includes notes about the stories.

Government of Saskatchewan. (2013). Learning resource evaluation guidelines. Regina, SK: Saskatchewan Education. Retrieved from

Hare, J. (2005). To know papers: Aboriginal perspectives on literacy. In J. Anderson, M. Kendrick, T. Rogers & S. Smythe (Eds.), Portraits of literacy across families, communities and schools. (pp. 243-263). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hare, J. (2011). “They tell a story and there’s meaning behind that story:” Indigenous Knowledge and young Indigenous children’s literacy learning. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy.

Hare, J. (2013). What I can learn about Indigenous storytelling traditions that I might apply to the teaching of graphic novels written by Indigenous authors? In T. Dobson, K. James, and C. Leggo (eds.), Handbook of Secondary English, pp. 33-39. Toronto, ON: Pearson Canada Inc.

Highway, T. (1998). Kiss of the fur queen. Toronto, ON: Doubleday Canada. This story follows two brothers who begin life on a Northern Manitoba trapline and through their traumatic experience in residential school. The story extends into their adult life where they struggle to come to terms with their life experiences.

Hill, S., Glover, A., & Colbung, M. (2011). My favourite book!: Young aboriginal children’s book choices. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 36(1), 77-84.

Iseke-Barnes, J. (2009). Unsettling fictions: Disrupting popular discourses and trickster tales in books for children. Journal of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies, 7, (1), 24-57. Retrieved from

King, T. (2003). The Truth About Stories: A Native Narrative. Toronto, Canada: House of Anansi Press Inc. Online version available at:

Mortillaro, N. (2016). How science and First Nations oral tradition are converging. CBC News, Technology & Science. Retrieved from

Reese, D. (ongoing). American Indians in Children’s Literature blog. Retrieved from

Slapin, B., Seale, D., Gonzales, R. (1996). How to tell the difference: A guide for evaluating children’s books for anti-Indian bias. Available for a small fee from

Wagamese, R. (2008). One Native life. Madeira Park, BC: Douglas & McIntyre. Wagamese recounts short stories of his youth, growing up in care.

Western and Northern Canadian Protocol (WNCP) for Collaboration in (Kindergarten to Grade 12) Education (2011). WNCP Common tool for assessing and validating teaching and learning resources for cultural appropriateness and historical accuracy of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit content (CTfAV). Retrieved from

White, C. exhibition coordinator (2011). Dreamtime Stories. Red Pixels Animations. Retrieved from These animations were created as part of the Marambul Yuganha Exhibition by Aboriginal Youth in Australia.

Wickwire, W. (1994). To see ourselves as the Other’s Other: Nlaka’pmux contact narratives. Canadian Historical Review. 75 (1), 1-20. Indigenous stories of the contact experience.

5. Place-based Perspectives That Consider Indigenous Approaches and Perspectives

Barnhardt, R. (2005). Indigenous knowledge systems and Alaska native ways of knowing. Anthropology & education quarterly, 36(1), 8-23. Available at:

Bartlett, C., Marshall, M., & Marshall, A. (2012). Two-eyed seeing and other lessons learned within a co-learning journey of bringing together indigenous and mainstream knowledges and ways of knowing. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 2(4), 331-340.

Beckford, C. L., & Nahdee, R. (2011). What works: Teaching for Ecological Sustainability. Incorporating Indigenous Philosophies and Practices. Retrieved from This resource provides an overview of how teachers might incorporate Indigenous Perspectives into their teaching to support ecological sustainability.

Beckford, C. L., Jacobs, C., Williams, N., & Nahdee, R. (2010). Aboriginal environmental wisdom, stewardship, and sustainability: Lessons from the Walpole Island First Nations, Ontario, Canada. Journal of Environmental Education, 41(4), 239-248.

Biermann, S. (2008). Indigenous pedagogies and environmental education: starting a conversation. International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, 4 (3), 27-38.

Bohensky, E., Butler, J., and Davies, J. (2013). Ecology and Society Feature Issue: Integrating Indigenous Ecological Knowledge and Science in Natural Resource Management: Perspectives from Australia. Retrieved from

Brown, B. (2016). Monaro dieback brings science and Aboriginal knowledge together. ABC News. Running Time 3:39. Retrieved from This short video shows how Western science and Aboriginal Ecological Knowledge can come together to address ecological concerns.

Cajete, G. (1994). Look to the mountain: An ecology of Indigenous education.

Canadian Council on Learning. State of Aboriginal Learning in Canada: A Holistic Approach to Measuring Success (excerpt from Chapter 2: Sources and Domains of Knowledge – p. 24 “Learning from and about the Land”). Retrieved from,_ccl,_2009.pdf

Chambers, C. (2006). “The land is the best teacher I have ever had”: Places as pedagogy for precarious times. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, 22(3), 27-38.

Donald, D.T. (2009). Forts, Curriculum, and Indigenous Métissage: Imagining Decolonization of Aboriginal-Canadian Relations in Educational Contexts. First Nations Perspectives, 2(1), 1-24.:

FNESC (2016). Science First Peoples Teacher Resource Guide. Retrieved from This resource guide has been designed to support teachers across schools in British Columbia to incorporate First Peoples’ perspectives into science curriculum. It offers sample units specific to British Columbia grades 5 – 9 curriculum, but may be applicable to other levels as well.

Friedel, T. L. (2011). Looking for learning in all the wrong places: Urban Native youths’ cultured response to Western-oriented place-based learning. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 24(5), 531-546.

Guichon, J. (2015). Stewards of the Future Toolkit 2015/16. Retrieved from:

Hatcher, A., Bartlett, C., Marshall, A., & Marshall, M. (2009). Two-eyed seeing in the classroom environment: Concepts, approaches, and challenges. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 9(3), 141-153. Retrieved from

Kids Talk Cultural Exchange

Korff, J. (2016). Lesson teacher resources to match the Australian curriculum: A cheat sheet helping teachers plan lessons for the Australia curriculum. Retrieved from This article concisely lists different ways of infusing content areas with Indigenous perspectives. Links to resources are provided for each content area.

McGregor, D. (2006). Traditional Ecological Knowledge. Ideas: the Arts and Science Review, 3(1). Retrieved from

Nicol, C. C. & Yovanovich, J. (2010). Tluuwaay Waadluxan Mathematical Adventures: for Gina waadluxan tluu: The everything canoe. UBC. Order form available at

Resources for Southeast Alaska Educators: Place-based Curriculum Examples. Retrieved from:

Scully, A. (2012). Decolonization, reinhabitation, and reconciliation: Aboriginal and Place-Based Education. Available from

Sparrow, D. Blanket making as mathematics. Available at: (3:54)

Sterenberg, G., & McDonnell, T. (2010). Learning indigenous, western and personal mathematics from place. Canadian Council on Learning, Ottawa. Retrieved from

TVO Parents (2011). Suzanne Stewart: Place-based learning in Aboriginal Communities (10:36). Retrieved from:

Vuntut Gwitchin Government & Yukon Education (2010). Old Crow Experiential Education Project. Retrieved from This resource provides an example and a template for developing a cultural camp for kids from Kindergarten to grade 9. It comes complete with teacher lesson plans and student booklets for various grades in the areas of Traditions and Science; Traditions, Arts and Trades; and Traditions, History and Geography.

Children’s Literature

Bourdeau Waboose, J. (2000). Sky sisters. Toronto, ON: Kids Can Press.

Flett, J. (2013). Wild berries. Simply Read Books.

Grant, L. and Ling, S. (2013). Let’s take a walk! Musqueam, BC: Musqueam Indian Band.

Hainnu, R. and Ziegler, A. (2011). A Walk on the tundra. Iqaluit, NT: Inhabit Media, Inc.

Highway, T. (2001) Caribou song. Toronto, ON: Harper Canada.

Jameson, C. Zoe and the fawn. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books.

Leitich Smith, C. (2000). Jingle dancer. William Morrow.

Nicholson, C.D. and Morin-Neilson, L. (2008). Niwechihaw I help. Toronto, ON: Groundwood Books/House of Anansi Press.

Spalding, A. and Scow, A. (2006). Secret of the dance. Victoria, BC: Orca Publishers.

Vickers, R.H., & Budd, R. (2013). Raven brings the light. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing.

Vickers, R.H., & Budd, R. (2014). Cloudwalker. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing.

Vickers, R.H., & Budd, R. (2015). Orca Chief. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing.

Vickers, R.H., & Budd, R. (2016). Peace Dancer. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing.

Novels and Non-Fiction

Loyie, L. and Brissenden, C. The moons speak Cree: A winter adventure. Penticton, BC: Theytus Books.   Young Lawrence learns about dog sledding, culture, and family in the context of winter survival lessons.

Wagamese, R. (2014). Medicine Walk. Penguin Random House Canada.   A father and son struggle to sort through their relationship in the BC interior.

Wall Kimmerer, R. Braiding sweetgrass: Indigenous wisdom, scientific knowledge and the teachings of plants. Milkweed.   The author shows how other living beings offer gifts and lessons.

Wright, A. (2013). The Swan Book. Giramondo Publishing. A futuristic book set in northern Australia at a time when the climate has been devastated.

  1. Getting Ready to Work with Indigenous Communities

Alberta Education. (2005). Our words, our ways: Teaching First Nations, Metis, and Inuit Learners, (Chapter 4, pp. 61-78). Edmonton, AB. Retrieved from

Cannon, M. J. (2013). Changing the subject in teacher education: Centering Indigenous, diasporic, and settler colonial relations. Cultural and Pedagogical Inquiry, 4(2). Retrieved from Elders in schools handbook. A guide for district education authorities and divisional education councils in the Northwest Territories. (21 pages) Retrieved from

Michel, Herman. Working with Elders in Places of Higher Learning. Vernon, B.C. J Charlton Publishing Ltd., 2011.

Preparing to Work in a First Nation School (pp. 8-10). Available at:

Wilson, S. (1994). Gwich’in Native Elders. Not just knowledge but a way of looking at the world, (pp. 35-44). Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native Knowledge Network. Retrieved from’in_Native_Elders.pdf

Examples of Indigenous Community Engagement

Aboriginal Enhancement Agreements. Available at:

Illustrated Practice: Respecting local culture, history, and language (4:43) Retrieved from Australian Principal, Alex Hunter, discusses the importance of collaborating with Indigenous communities in building and delivering curriculum, so that the traditions, culture and language of that community are properly reflected.

Skills for Solidarity. Available at: This an online curriculum resource that takes participants through a process for developing knowledge and skills aimed at working in solidarity with Indigenous peoples. There are five modules with panel presentation, questions for exploration, and workbooks for each of the modules.

Involving Indigenous Parents in Schools

Higgins, D., & Morley, S. (2014). Engaging Indigenous parents in their children’s education, (pp. 9-16). Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Retrieved from

Kaomea, J. (2012). Reconceptualizing Indigenous Parent Involvement in Early Educational Settings: Lessons from Native Hawaiian Preschool Families. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 3(4) . Retrieved from:

Home and School Contexts

Hare, J. & Anderson, J. (2010). Transitions to early childhood education and care for Indigenous children and families in Canada: Historical and social realities. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood. 35(2), 19‐27.

Luke, Allan, Cazden, Courtney, Coopes, Rhonda, Klenowski, Valentina, Ladwig, James, Lester, John, MacDonald, Shelley, Phillips, Jean, Shield, Paul G., Spina, Nerida, Theroux, Pamela, Tones, Megan J., Villegas, Malia, & Woods, Annette F. (2013) A Summative Evaluation of the Stronger Smarter Learning Communities Project : Vol 1 and Vol 2. Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD. Retrieved from

Wilson, K., & Henderson, J. (2014). First Peoples: A guide for newcomers. Vancouver, BC: City of Vancouver. Retrieved from

Reynar, A., & Matties, Z. (2015). Indigenous peoples of Manitoba. A guide for newcomers. Manitoba: Mennonite Central Committee. Retrieved from

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